Adult Yangtze sturgeon populate mainly river-bank river areas in 8 to 10 meters water depth over sandy-muddy ground. Young animals prefer sandy shallow water areas. They are predominantly nocturnal. Adult animals feed on omnivores, mainly of little bristles and small fish, but also of other invertebrates and aquatic plants. Young animals mainly take on zooplankton.
Males reach sexual maturity at four to seven years, females only at six to eight years. For spawning the animals migrate upstream during the spring flood. The sticky eggs are deposited on stones.